For All the Saints: A Post to Close All Hallowstide

This past Thursday, November 1, many Christians celebrated All Saints Day, also called the Feast of All Saints or All Hallows Day. It’s been one of my favorite holy days since I attended an All Saints Day chapel service many years ago where I first sang For all the Saints Who from Their Labors Rest (Hymn 463 in the Lutheran Hymnal) with rousing accompaniment by the trumpets and tympani in my Lutheran high school’s band.  I see now that the hymn’s fourth verse nicely summarizes the Protestant perspective on saints. It stresses solidarity over hierarchy:

O blest communion, fellowship divine; we feebly struggle, they in glory shine; yet all are one in Thee, for all are thine. Alleluia! Alleluia!

For Lutherans and other Protestants, the main point is that all believers belong to a mystical communion of saints. Thus, the Feast of All Saints becomes a day to remember Christians past and present—Saints with a “big S” like Paul and John and those with a “little s” like mom, dad and my Sunday school teacher. I think that All Saints Day appeals to me because it’s a time to reflect on the unseen connections between the living and dead, and those near and far. It reminds me that I’m part of a big picture that looks a bit like a Diego Rivera mural where the lines between past and present poignantly blur.

In this post, after a brief overview of All Saints Day’s origins, I’ll present images of several saints in a decidedly un-Lutheran like way. Using categories in a Roman Catholic prayer called the Litany of Saints, I’ll offer background and photos on one or two saints who exemplify each group. The ancient prayer is significant for its beauty and because many Roman Catholic congregations sing or recite it on All Saints Day and at the Easter vigil. A lector invokes dozens of saints’ names and after each is spoken or sung, the congregation responds, “Pray for us” (Ora pro nobis in Latin).  The categories are:

  • Mary and the Angels
  • Patriarchs and Prophets
  • Apostles and Disciples
  • Martyrs
  • Bishops and Doctors of the Church
  • Priests and Members of Religious Orders
  • Lay Members

Origins of All Saints Day   Denominations in the Western church celebrate the holiday on November 1 while Eastern rite churches do so on the first Sunday after Pentecost.  The common theme among denominations is a desire to honor all saints, known and unknown, whose souls abide after earthly life with God. The liturgical practice of commemorating saints’ lives extends to the early days of Christianity when local communities recalled the martyrs on the anniversaries of their deaths. Some speculate that the need for a day of remembrance for all martyrs—the saints in early usage—arose during the Diocletian persecutions of the early 300’s (photo 1, below) when so many Christians died that each could not have his or her own memorial day.  Scholars trace the first reference to a common saints’ day to a Syrian Christian community in the late 300’s.

CAI-Diocletian

2. Head of a Togate Statue of Emperor Diocletian (ca. 300), J. Paul Getty Musuem, Villa Collection, Malibu, CA

Two centuries later, on May 13, 609 or 610, Pope Boniface IV dedicated the Pantheon in Rome as a church in honor of Mary and all martyrs, naming it the church of Santa Maria del Martiri.  Workers reportedly removed 28 cartloads of human remains from the catacombs where Christians buried their dead, and placed them beneath the converted church’s high altar as relics of the holy martyrs. Today, many cathedrals and churches are dedicated to All Saints including the Episcopal cathedral in my hometown (photo 2).

All Saints Cathedral

2. Cathedral Church of All Saints, Milwaukee, WI, by Architect E. Townsend Mix in 1868

According to the Encylopedia Brittanica, “the first evidence for the November 1 date … and broadening the festival to include all saints as well as all martyrs occurred during the reign of Pope Gregory III (731–741), who dedicated a chapel in St. Peter’s, Rome, on November 1 in honor of all saints.” E.O. James asserts in Seasonal Feasts and Festivals that Pope Gregory IV officially established the annual commemoration of All Saints on November 1, 835 as part of an effort to curb the autumnal pagan rites that coincided with November 1 and still persisted in parts of northern Europe, Britain and Ireland.  About 150 years later, the Benedictine abbeys in Europe were celebrating All Souls Day on November 2, an observance to honor the faithful departed established by Odilo, the abbot of the Cluny monastery, in 988. The three day period between Halloween and All Souls Day has since been called “All Hallowstide.”

Spiritual Bonds   The Catholic Encyclopedia notes that the theology of the All Saints Day feast emphasizes the bond of those Christians who are already with God and those who are still on the earth, and that it points to an ultimate goal—“to be with God.”  Consequently, artists sometimes depict the saints “in glory,” i.e., in heaven with God, as we’ll see below with Mary and some others. But in the stained glass and sculpture that appears in many churches and cathedrals, we usually find heroic images of saints holding an attribute, an identifying symbol. One sees martyrs holding a palm frond, a symbol of victory over death, along with the instrument(s) used to kill or torture them. Other images employ elements drawn from saints’ legends or biographies to help identify them. The evangelists and other writers often appear holding a pen or book.

Here, organized around the seven categories in the Litany of Saints, are photos I’ve taken of some noteworthy saints as they appear in the stained glass and sculpture of 11 cathedrals and churches in Europe, the United States, and Mexico.

DEN-Mary Coronation

3. Mary’s Coronation by Royal Bavarian Art Institute, Basilica Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, Denver, CO

Mary and the Angels   Aside from Jesus, Mary probably appears more often in Christian art than any other figure. She is central to scenes of the Nativity, Annunciation, and Pentecost. Artists also portray her as the Queen of Heaven, imaginatively interpreting a verse in the Book of Revelation that describes a woman clothed with the sun, the moon under her feet, who wears a crown of 12 stars. A 20th century Munich-style window in the Immaculate Conception Cathedral in Denver (photo 3, above) illustrates a traditional scene of God the Son and God the Father, both seated on a heavenly rainbow throne, crowning Mary as the Holy Spirit in the form of a dove, hovers above with two curious cherubs.  The Father’s triangular nimbus symbolizes the Christian belief in a Triune God.  A 14th century boss in the vaulting of the Basilica of Santa Maria del Mar in Barcelona condenses the scene with Jesus and Mary seated while two angels make heavenly music with a stringed instrument and flute (photo 4, below).

SMM-Mary Coronation

4. Mary’s Coronation, 14th century vaulting boss, Basilica of Santa Maria del Mar, Barcelona, Spain

Patriarchs and Prophets   Three Hebrew patriarchs and their wives—Abraham and Sarah, Issac and Rebecca, Jacob and Rachel—appear in the art of some cathedrals and churches. One of the more popular scenes shows Abraham’s “test of faith” described in  Genesis 22 where an angel of the Lord shows up in the nick of time to stop Abraham from sacrificing Issac, his son.  A stained glass panel at St. Philip’s Episcopal Cathedral in Atlanta captures the drama with Abraham heeding the angel as a worried Issac, hands bound with rope, observes the encounter with a heaven-sent messenger (photo 5).

 

ATL-Abraham & Isaac

5. Abraham & Issac, Hebrew Bible Lancet by Willet Studios, Episcopal Cathedral of St. Philip, Atlanta, GA

My favorite biblical account involving a patriarch, though, is Jacob’s dream in Genesis 28. In the dream Jacob sees a ladder reaching from earth to heaven upon which angels ascend and descend, and then hears God declare, “Behold, I am with you and will keep you wherever you go….” A sculpted ensemble at Bath Abbey in England famously conveys the essentials of the dream with sculpted angels scurrying up and down two ladders that flank the prominent window on the abbey’s west façade (photos 6 and 7).

Bath West Facade

6. Bath Abbey, Bath England

Bath-Ladder & Angels

7. Angels on Ladder, Bath Abbey, England

Apostles & Disciples    Stained glass images of the most famous apostles and disciples abound in the cathedrals and churches of many Christian denominations. Familiar ones include St. Peter holding the keys of the kingdom, St. Paul with a sword, and St. Mary Magdalene holding a box or jar containing ointment that, tradition tells us, she used to anoint Jesus’ feet (photo 8).  But what of disciples like St. James Minor (also called the Less) whose very name implies obscurity? As with other saints, when St. James Minor shows up in art he often holds the legendary instrument of his death, in his case a club or bat. But sometimes you’ll find him holding a leafy branch.  What does this attribute signify? It likely alludes to a pre-Christian May Day ritual. In the pre-dawn hours of May 1st,  St. James Minor’s saint’s day, the youth in some European towns would go off into the woods to cavort and later return with branches cut from young trees to use as Maypole decorations. A window at Conception Abbey in Missouri shows the saint (Jacobus in Latin) holding a branch in one hand a a book in the other (photo 9, below).

ALB-Mary & Christ

8. St. Mary Magdalene Anoints Jesus’ Foot, Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, Albany, NY

CON-St Jac Min.

9. St. James Minor, Conception Abbey, Conception, MO

 

Martyrs   An enterprising writer could devote an entire blog post (or voluminous book) to the many martyred saints and their attributes. But that’s not me. I’m going to focus on St. Catherine of Alexandria, one of the so-called “Virgin Martyrs.” As a group, the Virgin Martyrs were said to endure unspeakably cruel tortures in witness to their faith. According to the Golden Legend, Jacob of Voragine’s 13th century compilation of myths and legends about the lives of saints, Catherine lived during the persecution of Maxentius, the emperor who ruled Rome in the early 4th century after Diocletian. Catherine, an aristocrat and devout Christian, rejected marriage with the emperor because she was a “bride of Christ” and publicly protested the persecution. The Roman authorities punished her impertinence by breaking her body on a wheel, afterwards known as a “Catherine wheel.” Legend holds that the wheel broke during the torture, and Catherine was then beheaded.  A 13th century panel at Chartres Cathedral shows an angel dismantling the wheel as Catherine kneels in prayer before it (photo 10).

CHA-St Catherine

10. St. Catherine and the Broken Wheel, Chartres Cathedral, France

The Roman Catholic Church’s list of martyred saints recently grew with the addition of Archbishop Oscar Romero.  Abp. Romero, an outspoken critic of the El Salvadoran revolutionary government’s treatment of the poor, was assassinated by gunfire as he stood on the altar of a hospital chapel. Pope Francis canonized him three weeks ago on October 14th. A few years after Romero’s death in 1980, the Washington National Cathedral installed a statuette in his honor (photo 11).

WNC-Romero

11. Archbishop Romero Statuette, Washington National Cathedral, Washington, DC

Bishops and Doctors of the Church   I’ll feature a saint in this category who was both bishop and doctor. St. Augustine served as the bishop of Hippo (now Annaba in modern day Algeria), a coastal city in North Africa, in the early 5th century. After converting to Christianity in 386, Augustine became a brilliant and influential writer on theological topics ranging from grace and charity to the Trinity. The Roman Catholic Church has long regarded him as one of its original four great “doctors,” meaning teacher in Latin. According to the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, Doctor of the Church is a title given to saints who are recognized as having made a significant contribution to theology or doctrine through their research, study, or writing. Augustine was a prolific writer who is probably best known in our time for works that include his Confessions and the City of God.

But in addition to his scholarship, in 397 Augustine wrote a set of rules to guide the common life of lay Christian communities.  The Augustinian Rule, which is likely the oldest monastic rule in the western church, is still followed today by monks (or friars) of the Augustinian Order.  A detailed bas-relief sculpture above the portal to the 18th century Augustinian monastery church in Oaxaca, Mexico (photos 12 and 13) shows the saint wearing a bishop’s mitre and vestments, standing as a heavenly giant above a host of kneeling clerics. A pair of angels lift and open his robe as Augustine holds a model of a church building and book, likely symbolizing his role as a foundational Christian author. He stands on the heads of three bearded men. Who do they represent?  Since Augustine surmounts them, the heads probably symbolize three heretical opponents—Mani, Pelagius, and Donatus Magnus—against whom Augustine argued and prevailed.

OAX-San Augustin Facade

12. Iglesia de San Agustin, Oaxaca, Mexico

OAX-St Augustine

13. St. Augustine Sculpture (18th century) by Tomás de Sigüenza, Oaxaca, Mexico

Priests & Religious   This category covers priests and the male and female members of religious orders such as the Benedictines, Carmelites, Dominicans, Franciscans, Jesuits, and Sisters of Mercy.  I’m highlighting St. Rose of Lima because she’s the first saint of the Americas, canonized by Pope Clement IX in 1667.  Rose of Lima joined a Dominican community in her native Peru, snubbing marriage and vowing virginity in the face of her parents’ strong protests.  According to the Oxford Dictionary of Saints, she “lived as a recluse in a hut…and experienced both trials and consolations of an extraordinary kind.” Rose was known to help the sick and hungry by caring for them in her room, and by making and selling lace to help the poor. She also withstood extreme forms of self-inflicted penance to help her identify with Christ’s sufferings. This might have shortened her life. She died after a long illness in 1617, at age 31. St. Rose is regarded as the patron of South America and the Philippines, and today many Roman Catholic churches in South and North America are dedicated to her, including a parish church in Quincy, Illinois. A window there, designed by the Emil Frei Studios in St. Louis, shows her contemplating a crucifix as she wears her signature silver crown of thorns and holds a crown of roses (photo 14).

St. Rose of Lima 1

14. St. Rose of Lima by Emil Frei Studios, St. Rose of Lima Church, Quincy, IL

Lay Members of the Church   Occasionally men and women who were not members of the clergy have been seen as saintly and eventually canonized. In some cases, rulers have been honored for the role they played in Christianizing their realms. Bohemia’s good St. Wenceslas is a prime example.  Less frequently, the Church has recognized noblemen and noblewomen for lives devoted to the less fortunate. St. Elizabeth of Hungary, a widowed princess, spent much of her fortune founding hospitals and caring for children who were orphaned by the Crusades in the 13th century. A panel in the Humanitarians Window at Washington National Cathedral shows her nursing a sick man (photo 15).

Eliz of Hungary

15. Elizabeth of Hungary Panel in the Humanitarians Window (1958) by Rowan & Irene LeCompte, Washington National Cathedral, Washington, DC

But it probably comes as no great surprise that some saints in this category are largely forgotten. One of them is St. Henry who is known to historians and the Germans who settled in and around Austin, Texas in the 1800’s, as Emperor Heinrich II. Henry was a Bavarian duke who became the Holy Roman Emperor in 1014 and a saint in 1146. His claim to sainthood rests largely on efforts to restore property taken from the church during a long war between the German states and Poland. Henry also founded the diocese of Bamberg, one of his favorite cities, and built a cathedral there. He and Abbott Odilo of Cluny were good friends, and Henry is the only German king ever to be canonized. A window in Austin’s St. Mary’s Cathedral shows the saint in imperial garb holding a model of Bamberg’s renowned four-towered cathedral (photo 16).

AUS-Henry II & Bamberg Cath

St. Henry by F.X. Zettler Studios, St. Mary’s Cathedral, Austin, TX

Article and Photos Copyright 2018 by Michael Klug, mikejklug@aol.com, 11/4/2018

 

 

 

 

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The Good Shepherd

The Lutheran church in which I grew up and the Episcopal church I attend now have a number of things in common.  They both were constructed during the Gothic revival in the late 1800’s; both have good organs and organists; and both bear prominent images of Jesus as the Good Shepherd.  A large mural depicting Christ holding a lamb in one arm and leading a flock of sheep (photo 1) flanks one side of the chancel at St. Martini Lutheran Church.

StM-Good Shepherd

1. Good Shepherd Mural, St. Martini Lutheran Church, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

The stained glass window in the chancel at Trinity Episcopal similarly shows Christ cradling a lamb with his right arm as he reaches down with his left hand to touch the head of an accompanying sheep in a reassuring gesture (photo 2). Both images draw on the work of an obscure German graphic artist and painter named Bernard Plockhorst who lived from 1825 to 1907. Indeed, many congregations in North America owe a debt of thanks to Plockhorst for the impetus his famous painting, “The Lord is My Good Shepherd,” gave to the artists who designed the stained glass in their churches (photo 3).

TRI-Good Shepherd

2. Good Shepherd Window, Trinity Episcopal Church, Iowa City, Iowa

644px-The_Lord_is_my_Good_Shepherd

3. The Lord is My Good Shepherd by Bernard Plockhorst, Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

On this Good Shepherd Sunday when some Christian denominations shift the emphasis in their post-Easter liturgies from Christ as a metaphorical sacrificial lamb to Jesus as a shepherd who stands by his flock, I’ll share some photos of good shepherd windows in the United States and Canada, two countries where they are fairly common. All the windows visualize, in different styles and varying degrees of detail, readings heard in churches today from the gospel of John, chapter 10, where Jesus declares “I am the good shepherd,” and Psalm 23 where the psalmist observes, “The Lord is my shepherd. I shall not want.”  After a short introduction to the history of the good shepherd image, we’ll look at the photos as illustrations of John’s gospel passage and the famous psalm attributed to David who, as both shepherd and king, prefigured Christ according to Christian tradition (photo 4).

SAP-Good Shepherds

4. Jesus and David as Good Shepherds, Church of St. Andrew & St. Paul, Montreal, Canada

Background   I was mildly surprised as I culled through my photos of stained glass windows, to see how broadly the image of a shepherd as a symbol for a loving and steadfast God cuts across denominational lines. One finds good shepherd windows in Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Episcopal, and other Protestant churches alike.  Why is it so common?  One reason could be that representations of the good shepherd belong to a common artistic heritage. The image dates to the earliest days of Christianity. Eduard Syndicus wrote in Early Christian Art that “the figure of the Good Shepherd was easily the most popular symbol of salvation” among second century Christians. It expressed concretely their sense of being “in distress yet not abandoned.”  A good shepherd fresco with Jesus holding a lamb on his shoulders appears at the Catacomb of Priscilla in Rome, and similar images appear in early baptisteries. The image spread to other parts of the Roman world. Walter Lowrie reports in Art in the Early Christian Church that some Christian communities in North Africa used glasses “adorned in gold leaf with the figure of the Good Shepherd.”

The good shepherd seems to have lost some of its popularity during the Middle Ages as the emphasis in Christian art shifted to other themes such as the theology of redemption, the life and miracles of Mary, and the lives of the saints. But the image has come back with a vengeance since Plockhorst’s good shepherd painting began to circulate. I’m posting examples below, organized by denomination. Enjoy!

Roman Catholic

StP-Good Shepherd

5. The Good Shepherd, Cathedral of St. Paul, St. Paul, Minnesota

SRQ-Good Shepherd

6. Good Shepherd with Disciples, Eglise Saint-Roch, Quebec City, Canada

SRL-Good Shepherd

7. The Good Shepherd, St. Rose of Lima Church, Quincy, Illinois, Designed by Emil Frei Studios

 

Disciples of Christ

CCC-Good Shepherd

8. Good Shepherd, Lamb, and Wolf , Country Club Christian Church, Kansas City, Missouri, Designed by Willet Studios

Episcopal

SJE-Good Shepherd

9. Good Shepherd Rescues Sheep from Thicket, St. James Episcopal Cathedral, Chicago, Illinois

SME-Good Shepherd

10. The Good Shepherd, St. Mark’s Episcopal Church, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Presbyterian

IMP-Good Shepherd

11. The Good Shepherd, Immanuel Presbyterian Church, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

United Church of Canada

CWQ-Good Shepherd

12. Good Shepherd Window, Chalmers-Wesley United Church, Quebec City, Canada

Text and Photos Copyright 2018, by Michael Klug; mikejklug@aol.com; 04/22/18

 

 

The Colors of Christmas

I suspect that many people take the colors of Christmas for granted. We see green and red in poinsettia plants, frosting on cookies, ugly sweaters, elf costumes, greeting cards, and airport terminals (photo 1) without giving them much thought. Green and red are ubiquitous in December. But what do the colors mean aside from signaling that it’s Christmastime? In this post, we’ll consider how artists use color to convey meaning in the iconography of Christmas as we visit cathedrals and churches in France, England, and the United States. Keep in mind as we proceed that iconography means “writing with images” and that color is but one aspect of the “script” artists use.

ORD Bunting

1. Green & Red Bunting, Terminal 3, O’Hare International Airport, Chicago, IL

Green and Red  Though the meaning of green and red displayed together may be lost on many of us moderns, its symbolic use in Christian art runs long and deep. A roundel in the twelfth century Passion and Resurrection Window at Chartres Cathedral shows how the color combination got started. The image depicts the crucified Jesus on a green cross with a red border (photo 2). Why are the colors of Christmas in a crucifixion scene?

CHA-Crucifixion

2. Crucifixion Roundel, 12th century, Chartres Cathedral, France

According to George Ferguson’s Signs and Symbols in Christian Art, green is associated with living vegetation and spring, symbolizing the triumph of spring over winter and life over death. Red is associated with blood and in this case symbolizes sacrifice. Artists in the Middle Ages employed the two colors to connect Christ’s birth and impending death to make the theological point that Jesus was born to die so that others might live. The colors came to symbolize the belief, expressed by St. Paul in his letter to the Romans, that Christians share in Jesus’ victory over death. He wrote that “just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, so we too might walk in the newness of life.”

Medieval theologians also used a verse from Paul’s letter to the Romans to forge an imaginative link between Christ’s birth and the beginning of time. Paul wrote, “Therefore, just as [Adam’s] trespass led to condemnation for all, so [Jesus’] act of righteousness leads to justification and life for all.” Malcolm Miller, the venerable English-speaking docent at France’s Chartres Cathedral explains that 12th century Christians “commonly believed that the ‘true’ cross was made from the Tree of Life, which had grown in Paradise. Thus, of the two trees of the Garden of Eden, one brought about death, and the other, life.” Christ, in this interpretation, is the “new Adam” whose birth represents a new start for humanity.

When did artists begin to use green and red in Nativity scenes?  I don’t know for sure. We do know, however, that some were using green and red in depictions of the stable scene, with images drawn from Luke’s gospel and the apocryphal Infancy Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew with its familiar ox and ass, by the year 1200. An altar frontal painting (photo 3) from the church of Santa Maria de Avia, now at the Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalonia in Barcelona, is one of the earliest examples I’ve encountered. It contains five small scenes illustrating the Annunciation, Visitation, Nativity, approach of the Magi, and Presentation of Christ in the temple. Jesus sits on Mary’s lap in the larger central panel.  In the Nativity panel at the upper right, the baby Jesus is wrapped in green and red swaddling clothes. To the left, he wears green and red robes seated on the enthroned Mary.

MNAC-Altar Frontal

3. Altar Frontal, ca. 1200, Church of Santa Maria de Avia,  National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain

White, Purple and Gold  Stained glass artists and painters have incorporated red and green in Christmas scenes ever since. Along the way, some added white to form a trio that symbolizes sacrifice, new life, and Christ’s inherent purity of spirit. Others added purple and/or gold to symbolize royalty and the Christian conception of Christ as a heavenly king. A set of four windows at Gloucester Cathedral in England offers a tenderly executed example (photos 4 and 5).  From left to right, the four panels picture Joseph, three angels with Jesus in a manger, Mary kneeling, and two shepherds with a herald angel above. Note the colors of the angels’ wings in the manger scene. They are red, green, purple, and white. The artist used the colors of Christmas to envelop the baby Jesus.

GLO-Nativity

4. Nativity Windows, Gloucester Cathedral Cloister, Gloucester, England

GLO-Jesus&Angels

5. Angels with Jesus in Manger, Gloucester Cathedral Cloister, Gloucester, England

Similarly, an early 20th century adoration window (photo 6, probably fabricated by a German studio) at St. Boniface Catholic Church in New Vienna, Iowa, shows angels wearing green, red, purple, and gold robes as they kneel adoringly before the babe lying in a manger. To the left, two Magi wear what appear to be red and white caps beneath their crowns, suggesting associations with Christmas candy canes and Santa Claus!

BON-Adoration Window

6. Adoration of Christ by Magi and Shepherds, St. Boniface Catholic Church, New Vienna, Iowa

I’ll close this post with a good look at a modern, faceted stained glass window at Our Redeemer Lutheran Church, a few blocks from our home in Iowa City. It’s a favorite of mine because it combines in one elegant panel the main elements of the Christmas story entirely in symbols. Green, red, white and gold are all there. A golden manger is central. A red chi-rho rises from it. It’s an emblem of Christ because chi and rho are the first two letters in the Greek word for Christ. A circular white nimbus, perhaps suggesting a communion host, appears behind the crest of the rho. A green almond-shaped mandorla frames the chi-rho and manger. It symbolizes Christ’s dual nature through the intersection of two unseen circles that represent his humanity and divinity. Three crowns representing the Three Kings or Magi, a crook representing the shepherds, and a bright pentagonal star complete the symbolic story of a singular night, centuries ago, when light triumphed over darkness in a little town called Bethlehem.

ORL-Bethlehem

7. Nativity Window by Jerry Krauski, dedicated in 1989 at Our Redeemer Lutheran Church, Iowa City, IA

Sources: Ferguson, Signs & Symbols in Christian Art (Oxford Press, 1961); Miller, Chartres Cathedral (Pitkin Pictorials, 1985); Barnstone, The Other Bible (HarperOne, 2005); Attridge, Harper Collins Study Bible (HarperOne, 2006)

Photos and article copyright by Michael Klug, mikejklug@aol.com, 12/24/2017

 

 

October 31, 1517

Martin Marty, the eminent Lutheran theologian, asks in October 31, 1517: Martin Luther and the Day that Changed the World, “Do days change the world?” It’s a timely question about the events in Wittenberg, Germany—500 years ago today—that opened the door to the Protestant Reformation. If Professor Marty had asked me if that day in 1517 when an obscure Augustinian monk tacked 95 Theses or propositions to a church door in distant Deutschland (photo 1) changed my world, the answer would be an emphatic, “Yes!”

WNC-Wittenberg

1. Martin Luther & 95 Theses, Freedom I Window by Joseph Reynolds, Washington National Cathedral, Washington, DC

 

I was raised a Lutheran and attended Lutheran schools. I learned the 10 Commandments in light of Luther’s Small Catechism. Had it not been for Martin Luther and his break from the Roman Catholic Church, it’s doubtful that my fifth grade classmates and I would have memorized this verse from St. Paul’s letter to the Ephesians: For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves. It is the gift of God, not of works, lest any man should boast. I can still recite it by heart more than fifty years later.  And without Martin Luther, these Latin words would not have appeared on a banner behind the dais at my Lutheran high school’s graduation ceremony:  Sola Fide, Gratia, Scriptura; Faith, Grace, Scripture Alone.

That Bible verse and banner represent in my mind the essence of Luther’s theology of salvation: faith and grace are what matter when we face the divine Judge at the end of our days. Building his case on scripture as the sole and ultimate authority in matters of Christian belief—not papal pronouncements or non-Biblical ecclesiastic tradition—Luther proclaimed that we are justified, that is, made right with the Almighty, through faith in God’s saving grace. That idea, and the way Luther doggedly pursued it, caused quite a stir in early 16th century Europe where many people, Luther included, often felt powerless to prevent demonic spirits from tipping the scales of divine justice against them (photo 2).

Amien Scales

2. Demon Tugging at St. Michael’s Scales on Judgement Day, Amiens Cathedral, Amiens, France

This post marks the 500th anniversary of the day most historians associate with the start of the Protestant Reformation. Our points of departure are stained glass and sculpture, mainly in the United States, featuring images related to Luther and his work. We’ll start with a statue and sculpted niche in one of the bays along the north aisle at the Washington National Cathedral (photo 3).

WNC-Luther

3. Martin Luther with Mallet, Washington National Cathedral, Washington, DC

The statue shows Luther as he prepares to nail his 95 Theses to the church door, mallet in hand. The pedestal below forms a triptych, with its central panel highlighting the 95 Theses on a door framed by a Gothic portal. The flanking scenes depict Luther as a writer working at a desk on the left, and as a preacher in a pulpit on the right. An open Bible underlies the three scenes and symbolically provides their foundation (photo 4).  The composition clearly implies that the 95 Theses are central to Luther’s story.

WNC-Luther Pedestal

4. Luther Pedestal, Washington National Cathedral, Washington, DC

Martin Luther’s 95 Theses   What prompted Luther to post his 95 propositions on the church door of a small university in remote Saxony and invite others to join him in a debate about the nature of repentance? Or more simply put, what was the bee in his bonnet? The impetus, Professor Marty explains, was the Roman Catholic system of penance. A pervasive bureaucracy developed in the church during the late middle ages that had turned the forgiveness of sins into a money-making enterprise. Luther objected in particular to the sale of indulgences, a term rooted in the Latin word for “leniency.”

The practice of granting indulgences stemmed from a belief that penalties attach to sins and weigh against Christian souls, with heavier penalties for more serious sins. Consequently, anyone who hoped to enter heaven must do something beneficial to purge the stain of sin from one’s soul or, using the justice metaphor, tip the scales in one’s favor. One could give alms to the poor, join a Crusade, or rebuild a church among a wide range of “good works” that could offset the gravity of the sin. But if a person’s penitential acts were insufficient at death to clear the record and ensure a quick ascent to heaven, his soul would land in Purgatory where cleansing penance might continue indefinitely. An indulgence granted by the Church could count to a person’s credit after death, and thus facilitate the soul’s movement from Purgatory to Heaven.

St. Peter's Basilica

5. St. Peter’s Basilica, Photo by Hadrian Volle and Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

At some point in the early 1500’s, Pope Leo sanctioned the sale of indulgences to raise funds for the construction of a new St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome, begun in 1506, completed in 1626, and ever since the largest church in the world (photo 5). In 1514, 24 year old Albert of Brandenburg borrowed 21,000 ducats from the Fugger banking house in Augsburg to pay to become the Archbishop of Mainz. Since Albert already was the Archbishop of Magdeburg, holding two high church offices simultaneously violated canon law.  Pope Leo agreed to overlook the infraction if Albert made a sizable contribution to St. Peter’s building fund. Albert agreed and, with the Pope’s permission to sell indulgences, used half the money raised to repay the loan and the other half to make good on his deal with the Pope. One of Albert’s most effective front men in the indulgence sale was a Dominican friar named Tetzel.  Using clever jingles and making outrageous claims, he persuaded many of Luther’s neighbors to buy indulgences guaranteed to shorten their or their deceased loved one’s stay in Purgatory. “As soon as the coin in the coffer rings,” Tetzel assured, “the soul from Purgatory springs.” Tetzel’s indulgences were reportedly so powerful that they could even save the soul of someone who raped the Virgin Mary!

Luther was incensed. His 95 Theses scorched the church’s penance industry and its abusive exploitation of common folks’ fear for the fate of their souls. He minced no words about the malevolence of Albert’s and Tetzel’s fund-raising scheme when he wrote in thesis 32, “Those who believe that through letters of indulgence they are made sure of their own salvation will be eternally damned along with their teachers.”  Then, to drive home the point with the clergy and others in authority, he juxtaposed true compassion and self-interest in thesis 45, asserting that “Christians should be taught that those who see another in need and pass on by, and then give money for indulgences, are not purchasing for themselves the Pope’s indulgences, but rather God’s anger.”  Luther called out Pope Leo directly in thesis 86 as he wondered aloud, “Why does not the Pope, whose riches today are ampler than those of the wealthiest of the wealthy, build this one Basilica of St. Peter with his own money, rather than with that of poor believers?”

Mighty Fortress-95 Theses

6. 95 Theses and Holy Bible, Our Redeemer Lutheran Church, Iowa City, Iowa

With his 95 Theses, Luther challenged the corrupt indulgence enterprise from top to bottom and, in the process, called the Pope’s authority into question. That didn’t set well with Leo. When Luther refused to recant at an imperial hearing in 1521, the Pope excommunicated him and the emperor declared Luther an outlaw. Luther avoided the fiery fate of earlier reformers who were branded as heretics, notably Bohemia’s Jan Hus (photo 7), largely because Frederick the Wise, Saxony’s ruler, came to Luther’s defense (photo 8). Frederick’s men took Luther into hiding at Wartburg Castle at Eisenach, where he stayed for nearly a year and wrote prolifically.

Jan Hus

7. Jan Hus Sculpture, Washington National Cathedral, Washington, DC

BER-Frederick Wise

8. Frederick the Wise, Berliner Dom, Berlin Germany

Writer and Preacher   Luther was indeed an accomplished writer and preacher. During his year-long hiatus at the Wartburg Castle, Luther translated the New Testament from Greek into German and wrote a slew of polemics against indulgences, the private Mass, monastic vows, and other non-Biblical accretions in church life. It was just the beginning. Over the course of his lifetime, Luther wrote Biblical commentaries, doctrinal statements, and various tracts under more than 600 titles. He was also a gifted hymn writer. He wrote A Mighty Fortress is Our God, the great anthem based on Psalm 46 that reverberates in Lutheran churches on the Sunday immediately preceding October 31 (photo 9).  The hymn became something of a call to arms in the wars of religion that followed the Reformation. Sweden’s King Gustavus Adolphus reportedly had his troops sing A Mighty Fortress as they marched off to battle Catholics in the Thirty Years War, a sad and unfortunate conflict that devastated parts of Europe and killed half the population of several German cities in the early 1600’s. As for preaching, one scholar estimates that between 1510 and 1546, Luther delivered nearly 7,000 sermons, an average of one sermon for every two days. Nearly 2,300 of them are still extant in writing.

Mighty Fortress-Music

9. A Mighty Fortress Window, Our Redeemer Lutheran Church, Iowa City, Iowa

Influence   The spark Luther struck on October 31, 1517, kindled a fire that spread quickly to Britain, Switzerland, Scandinavia, the Netherlands, and France, fanned by newly manufactured printing presses that churned out his pamphlets by the tens of thousands. His words freed many from the uncertainty they felt about the afterlife, and moved other reformers like Zwingli, Calvin, Cranmer, and Wesley to search the scriptures for fresh insights into the nature of the priesthood, sacraments, and saving grace. A stained glass window at the interdenominational Riverside Church in New York honors Luther and some of the reformers who followed him (photo 10) in Chartres-like scenes that depict (from bottom to top and left to right) Luther, Philip Melancthon, Zwingli, John Fox, Calvin, John Wesley,  Balthazar Hubmaier,  Hugh Latimer, and Roger Williams.

RIV-Reform 3

10. Reformers Window, Riverside Church, New York City, New York (click to enlarge)

Article & photos (except #5) copyright 2017 by Michael Klug; mikejklug@aol.com; 10-31-2017

The Disconnected Zodiac: a Guest Post by Richard J. Legault

Blogger’s Note: Rick Legault of Ottawa, Canada and I share an appreciation for the multi-faceted symbolism in medieval cathedrals and especially Chartres Cathedral in France, a place we have both visited at different times. Since we first met online a couple years ago, we’ve traded emails about our questions, speculations, insights, and resources. Our correspondence has enriched me. Rick opened my eyes to the meaning of astronomical elements in Chartres Cathedral, helping me appreciate it and other cathedrals all the more. For all of that, I am grateful.  I’m pleased to share his guest post about the iconography of the zodiac at Chartres with you. It’s a draft of an article that will appear in final form at http://independent.academia.edu/RichardJLegault.

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Mandorling – I thank you Mike for accepting this article as a guest post on your blog. I owe you and yours a debt of gratitude not only for your inspiring work but for taking some superb photos for my series of draft papers on Chartres Cathedral. I can never really get to the bottom of sacred images. There is always another connection to pursue, another layer of meaning, another analogy, another allusion. In homage to your Mandorlas in our Midst blog, I’ve taken to using the word mandorling to designate the pursuit of these meaningful connections.

So now, I invite you and your readers to come along with me to a time: AD 1145, to a place: Chartres, to meet the Chartrians and do a bit of mandorling about some of the images they used depict the annual activities of their medieval way of life and, more importantly, their knowledge of time-tracking and astronomy.

The Zodiac and Labors of the Months – In Gothic art, the calendar cycle of annual activities is depicted so often in stone, glass and illuminated manuscripts that it is possible to define a fairly standardized iconography of images known as the Labors of the Months. Two examples are shown below in Figure 1 and Figure 2. To each month is assigned a typical rural activity such as pruning in April, hunting and falconry in May, planting and weeding in June, harvesting in July, threshing in August, pressing grapes in October, butchering livestock in November and, inevitably, feasting in December.

December

Figure 1 – Nobleman Feasting in December, Zodiac Window, Chartres Cathedral, France

These activities and the iconography can vary a bit from place to place with different activities taking place earlier or later in the year depending on local climate, length of seasons and customs. The Labors of the Months images are always fairly easy to understand especially when the artists label each month with their names in letters, as in Figure 2.

Figure 2

Figure 2 – Labors of the Month and Zodiac Signs, Zodiac Window, Chartres Cathedral, France

Very frequently the Labors of the Months are accompanied by the even more standardized iconography of the twelve signs of the Zodiac, a medieval adaptation of the traditional astronomical lore of late Greek and Roman antiquity. Astronomy has always been essential to keep calendars on track with the natural cycles of time – the days, the months, the seasons and the years. In Gothic art the Labors of the Months and the Signs of the Zodiac are almost always arranged in the standard chronological order of the calendar, as shown in Figures 3 and 4. A major exception to this standard chronological order is displayed in the archivolt sculptures of the Royal Portal of Chartres Cathedral, shown and mapped in Figures 1a, 1b and 1c.

 

Figure 1a

Figure 1a – The chronological disarray of Ten Zodiac Signs and Twelve Labors of the Months surrounds a Contemplation of Creation scene over the leftmost door of the Royal Portal (c. 1145).

Zodiacs at Chartres – There are several Calendar and Zodiac images at Chartres Cathedral. The most prominent and well known are in the archivolts above two of the three doors of the Royal Portal. Here, the Signs of the Zodiac and Labors of the Months are in disarray, in nothing even close to their proper chronological order. They are also disconnected because only 10 zodiac signs are grouped with the 12 labors of the months over the leftmost door, while two signs – Gemini and Pisces – are split off from that group, and placed separately over the rightmost door. There, the central imagery of the Incarnation is surrounded by angels using censors to sanctify the medieval curriculum of the Seven Liberal arts represented by seven sages of antiquity and female personifications. The separate placement of Gemini and Pisces within this group seems oddly out of place – a curiosity arousing anomaly that taxes the observer for an explanation and makes the topic ideal for a mandorling.

Figure 1b

Figure 1b – Gemini and Pisces (highlighted) and the Seven Liberal Arts are sanctified by Angels with censors surrounding images of the Incarnation over the right door of the Royal Portal (c. 1145).

This disarray and disconnectedness is not the case with other calendar and zodiac images in the Cathedral. For example a second Zodiac in a stained glass window in the ambulatory, shown in Figure 2, ends with December and Capricorn at the top, after working its way up through the months and the zodiac in their proper chronological order with one exception. The exception is the transposition of April and May and of Taurus and Gemini – a transposition I can understand as neither an error on the part of the original glaziers nor a botched restoration. As we go along, you will see why I think this transposition is a later and secondary re-affirmation of the reason for the disconnection of the stone Zodiac in the Royal Portal.

Figure 1c

A third and much later Zodiac Cycle in the outermost archivolt of the rightmost door of the North Transept Porch, shown in Figure 3, is in perfect calendrical sequence, as is the one in the much later Astronomical Clock, shown in Figure 4. An easily overlooked and less well known fifth Zodiac Cycle, shown in part in Figure 5, is delicately tooled into a slender colonette behind the statues in a jamb of the Royal Portal. As I have not seen it in its entirety I don’t know if it is in proper sequence with the calendar.

Figure 3

Figure 3 – Chartres North Porch Zodiac – The signs and the monthly labors in the archivolts of the North Porch follow the calendar. The cycle starts with January at the left bottom, continues through June at the top and ends in December, at the right bottom. The two extra figures at each end depict the seasons Winter and Summer: men in seasonally appropriate attire (c. 1215 – restored). The cut and paste close-ups, in random order, are from a modern French postcard.

Figure 4

Figure 4 – The Face of the Zodiacal Clock at Chartres shows the signs in their proper calendrical sequence, with the Sun on the cusp between Leo and Virgo and the Moon about ¾ full, c. 1525-28.

Figure 5

Figure 5 – Cancer, Sagittarius, Libra and Gemini finely tooled on a colonette in a jamb of the Royal Portal, c. 1145.

I think there can be no question that ignorance or error is the cause of the odd disorder and disconnectedness of the Zodiac of the Royal Portal. The correct chronological order of the signs of the Zodiac was too well-known in medieval culture of the 12th Century. Their cosmology, astronomy and time reckoning methods, inherited from classical Greek and Roman teachings, were read in the Latin works of medieval natural philosophers such as Beothius, the Venerable Bede, Isidore of Seville, Abbo of Fleury and numerous others. The exceptional interest in and knowledge of astronomy among the Chartrians, from the days of Bishop Fulbert of Chartres (c. 1006) up to the chancellorship of Thierry of Chartres (c. 1145) is a well-documented fact of history. Accordingly, I am persuaded that the disarray and disconnectedness of this Royal Portal Zodiac was a matter of deliberate design. The designers, alas, left no written record of the reasoning behind their choices, no record of the teaching they intended to convey with this very peculiar design. We do not even know for sure who they were. We have only the sculptures to speak, as it were, for themselves.

Nevertheless, we do have considerable and reasonably reliable knowledge of the cultural context of medieval Christian theology, natural philosophy, cosmology and astronomy that the Chartrians read about, wrote about and taught in the mid-twelfth century at their Cathedral school. If we accept the idea that their cathedral is a stone and glass record of these teachings, then I think the best way to understand the meaning of the Disconnected Zodiac, is to look for clues in the Chartrian readings, writings and teachings of which the stone and glass version, is but a duplicate. Extracting the meaning of the Disconnected Zodiac in this way is the goal of this paper.

Medieval Astronomy – The understanding of the Chartrians of the structure of the cosmos and of astronomy, at the time they built the Royal Portal (c. 1145), followed the teachings of Plato and Claudius Ptolemy. Up to that time they had had only an incomplete Latin translation of Plato’s Timaeus and for Ptolemy, only second and third hand summaries, compilations and commentaries from other authors of late antiquity. Ptolemy’s actual books, however, were just beginning to become available, arriving from Latin translators of Arabic versions during this period of the twelfth century: the Tetrabiblos c. 1138 from Plato de Tivoli, the Planisphere c.1143 from Hermann of Carinthia, and the Almagest c. 1175 from Gerard of Cremona.

Medieval Zodiac – The stately procession of the fixed stars, including the constellations of the Zodiac, across the night sky was well known to medieval philosophers and astronomers. The name Zodiac comes from the Greek zōdiakos kuklos (ζoδιακoς κύκλος), meaning “circle of animals”. Perhaps the longest lasting game of connect the dots of all time, the constellations and Zodiac, to this day are still a convenient identification, mapping and memory tool. Following Plato and Ptolemy, these constellations were considered to reside on an outer-most sphere of fixed stars that never moved with respect to each other. The entire sphere with its stellar panorama revolved in an east-west direction around the Earth daily.

Inside this outermost sphere – and in front of the zodiac constellations to an observer on earth – they could also see the heavenly pageantry of a second procession. This was the wanderings of seven stars Plato and Ptolemy had called planets because they were not fixed and could be seen to move along from night to night, month to month, and even year to year, from west to east (prograde), against the background of the twelve constellations of the Zodiac. Their seven planets, each on their own sphere nested one inside the other, were the Moon, Sun, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. This Ptolemaic Model, as we now call it, was frequently illustrated in manuscripts using a series of concentric circles as seen in Figure 6. While some of the planets were seen to sometimes reverse direction and move backwards (retrograde) through the Zodiac for short periods of time, in general, their movement was seen as an ongoing west-east procession, with each planet completing its zodiacal cycle in its own unique period of time.

Figure 6

Figure 6 – Ptolemaic Planetary Model in Medieval Manuscripts

The Disconnected Zodiac – The sculptures of the Royal Portal include the twelve signs of the zodiac, arranged in a strangely disordered manner. Ten appear in disarray over the left door, none over the middle door and two, Gemini and Pisces, over the right door. Many of the authors who describe this arrangement comment on the strange disorder without offering any satisfactory explanation. In 1964 Adolf Katzenellenbogen said the splitting off of the two signs “poses a particular problem for which no definite solution may be offered.” In 2008 Philip Ball said “We no longer know how to read this code.” In 2009 John James attempted a mystical New-Age astrological explanation the meaning of which, frankly, impedes a reasoned understanding. An exception is Margot Fassler who in 2010 said that Pisces and Gemini over the Incarnation doorway are symbolic of the annual feast days of the Annunciation on 25 March in Pisces and of John the Baptist on 24 June in Gemini. Her idea is indeed a meaningful calendrical and contextual fit with the Incarnation images. However, it does not help me understand why the Chartrians would have singled out and given greater prominence to the Annunciation and the Baptist rather than other liturgical dates of equal or arguably greater significance: Advent between 27 November and 3 December in Sagittarius, the Nativity itself on December 25 in Capricorn, Epiphany on 6 January also in Capricorn, the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple (Candlemas) on 2 February in Aquarius, or the Transfiguration of Jesus on 6 August in Leo. Fassler’s idea also gives no reason as to why the other 10 signs are displayed in such messy disarray.

I think we need to look elsewhere to find a better way to understand the disconnected zodiac. The two disconnected signs are placed among a double set of images that represent the wisdom in the teaching syllabus of the Trivium and Quadrivium of late pagan antiquity. Accordingly, rather than look to the liturgical calendar, I think it makes better sense to look for meaning in readings and texts of Theology and Natural Philosophy, subjects for which the Masters of the School of Chartres were then, and are to this day, most well known. I propose working with the idea that the disarray and disconnectedness of the sculptures intentionally fit with the overall theme of the entire portal as a depiction of the theological concept of time using the three key moments of time in Christian theology: Creation, Incarnation and Second Coming. In the context of the Quadrivium, the teachings of the four liberal arts that deal with numbers, order, quantity and measurement, it makes sense that the depiction of the zodiacal signs would have something to do with using astronomy to measure and quantify time. The additional depiction over the center door of astrolabes, shown in Figure 7, is consistent with this idea because astrolabes are instruments of astronomical measurement and computation associated primarily with orderly observation, timekeeping and way finding.

Figure 7

Figure 7 – Angels unwrapping astrolabes in the archivolts of the Royal Portal, center door c. 1145.

Hypothesis – I think the extraction of Pisces and Gemini for placement separately over the right door may depict a Chartrian representation of the amount of time elapsed from the moment of Creation to the moment of the Incarnation, in other words, the duration of the Old Testament period. The idea is that the Chartrians may have used the concept of astronomical precession and what we now call Zodiacal Ages to depict the estimated elapsed time as spanning from early in the Age of Gemini to the beginning of the Age of Pisces.

Year of Creation – The question of how old Creation was had preoccupied Christians from the earliest times. For instance, Mario Livio writes that, as early as the year 169, Theophilus of Antioch had concluded “that the world had been created some 5,698 years earlier),” in other words in 5529 BC. Many estimates of this kind were widely known in medieval times from Christian writers and traditions that had used biblical chronologies to calculate a variety of estimates of the time of Creation. Over a dozen of these estimates are listed in Figure 8. The average of this dozen puts the count between Creation and Incarnation at 5,449 years with a standard deviation of about 114 years or 2 percent of the average. This is a pretty good match with the traditional Anno Mundi (Year of the World) count of 5,500 years. Texts of many of these authors and of others who cited them were available for reading in Chartres at the time of Thierry of Chartres’ Chancellorship, as listed in Figure 9.

Figure 8

Figure 8

 

Figure 9

Figure 9

Astronomy and Precession – From the known contents of Thierry of Chartres’ book Heptateuchon, listed in Figure 10, there is additional good evidence that knowledge of the astronomy of Ptolemy, Hyginus, and Al-Kwarizmi was at hand among the Chartrians. This knowledge included the concept of astronomical precession, understood then as the very slow movement of the position of the equinoxes backwards (retrograde) through the constellations of the zodiac.

Figure 10

Figure 10

What is now called general precession in modern astronomy is the observation that the equinoxes – two points where the celestial equator intersects the ecliptic – slowly move backwards relative to the background stars. An equinox occurs when the Sun is on one of these two intersection points. Their movement takes place at a rate very close to 50.29 arc seconds per year or one full degree of arc in just over 71.5 years or one full 30-degree sign of the zodiac in about 2,145 years. Professor Roy Bishop provides an excellent and up to date description of precession in The Royal Astronomical Society of Canada’s Observer’s Handbook 2017: “As a result of the combined precession of the equator and precession of the ecliptic, the equinoxes (the intersection points of the celestial equator and the ecliptic) drift westward (retrograde) about 50.29ʺ per year (a period of approximately 25,800 years. […] The Vernal equinox was located in the constellation Gemini 7,500 years ago [c. 5483 BC], in Taurus 4500 years ago, and in Aries 3000 year ago. It moved into Pisces from the “first point of Aries” around the beginning of the Christian era 2000 years ago, at roughly the same time as Hipparchus discovered the precession of the equinoxes.”

Moreover, the entry in a NASA glossary for a Great Year or Platonic Year states, “the period of one complete cycle of the equinoxes around the ecliptic [i.e. 360 degrees around the zodiac] is about 25,800 years.”

Generally, precession is measurable by observation of long-term displacement of the Sun’s position in the Zodiac on the day of the equinoxes. Considering precession involves a displacement the of the Sun’s position, and the Sun was then thought of as a planet, precession may, following Plato’s definition, be taken as a legitimate marker to measure the passage of time. Today, a Zodiacal Age is the name used for the amount of time the vernal equinox spends in a given segment of the zodiac spanning 30 degrees of the ecliptic or about one twelfth of a Platonic Year (360/30 = 12). The duration of time you assign to a Zodiacal Age or to a Platonic Year depends directly on the rate of presession you use to calculate it. The inaccurate and excessively slow rate first found by Hipparchus and used by Ptolemy was challenged in the Middle ages.

The concept of astronomical precession was nothing new to Medieval Christianity. In the third century, Origen, who was read at Chartres, considered it so well-known that he used it to argue that astrological divination and prognostication was fakery and a heresy: “There is a well-known theorem which proves that the Zodiac, like the planets, moves from west to east at the rate of one part in a hundred years, and that this movement in the lapse of so long a time changes the local relation of the signs […]. We are thus taught that the most learned in these matters cannot show beforehand what the Lord intends to bring upon every nation (Origen The Philocalia XXIII, 18).”

In antiquity, Claudius Ptolemy, following Hipparchus, had put the rate of precession substantially slower than the modern value, at about 1 degree per 100 years, or one full 30-degree sign of the zodiac in 3,000 years. This was the rate known to Origen. Later in later medieval times, the Arab astronomer Al-Battani (c.855 – 929) found much of Ptolemy failed to agree with observations and had measured the rate of precession as being much faster, a value close to 54.5 arc seconds per year, which is one degree in about 66.1 years, or one full 30-degree sign of the zodiac every 1,982 years. This is much closer to the modern value of about 2,145 years. Al-Battani wrote about this in his book Kitab al-Zij. This book appeared in the Latin West in 1116, translated as De motu stellarum (On the Motion of the Stars) by Plato of Tivoli who is reported to have worked in Barcelona from 1116 to 1138 (O’Connor 1999 and Minio-Paluello, 2008).

Al-Battani at Chartres – There is solid textual evidence that Thierry of Chartres, Chancellor at Chartres during the construction of the Royal Portal, was familiar with the more advanced astronomy of Al-Battani. The evidence is written in Hermann of Carinthia’s Preface to his translation from the Arabic of The Planisphere of Claudius Ptolemy. In this Preface, Hermann dedicates his work to his former teacher – Thierry of Chartres – whom he describes as the greatest living master of the liberal arts and of natural philosophy in these words: “To whom, therefore, can I dedicate that which is the deepest principle and root of all studies of humanity rather than to you, who, I know, and therefore plainly confess, hold the first position in philosophy in these times, and are, as it were, an-unmoveably secure anchor in the turbulent storms of ever-changing doctrines? If it pleases the Gods, may envy not make me, like the indolent masses, voluntarily allow myself to lie, or hide the truth before you, most worthy teacher Thierry, in whom, I am convinced, the soul of Plato has once again been brought down from heaven and fitted to mortal man (Translation Burnett 1978, my emphasis).”

The fact that Hermann and Thierry shared knowledge of Al-Battani’s work in astronomy is also evident in the Preface. It contains a passage naming Arabic authors and texts of astronomical science, indicating these were well-known to of both of them: “From these, and `in the Greek tongue, he collected two volumes: the Sintasis for the first discipline, and the Tettastis for the second – in Arabic called the Almagest and the Alarba. Al-Battani has appropriately made the Almagest more concise (?), and Abü Marshar has, no less appropriately, expanded on the Alarba (Translation Burnett 1978).”

Al-Battani’s work, from its first arrival in Europe to this day, has been most well-known for its challenges to Ptolemy’s observational accuracy and especially for improving Ptolemy on the rate of precession. No modern biographer fails to mention it.

Dating Creation Using Precession – Anyone using Al-Battani’s rate of precession, Biblical traditions dating the time of creation at an average of 5449 BC and working backwards from the birth of Christ pegged at year AD 1, the dawn of the Age of Pisces, would place the time of creation early in the Age of Gemini. Accordingly, the interval of time between Creation and the Incarnation may have been depicted over the right door of the Royal Portal using the two signs Gemini and Pisces as symbolically corresponding to a Biblically estimated interval of time between the Age of Gemini and the Age of Pisces, as shown in Figure 11.

Figure 11

Figure 11

This explanation of the reason for disconnecting Gemini and Pisces from the rest of the zodiacal signs over the left door and placing them separately over the right door is, of course, a hypothesis. It follows on the facts of cultural context that the Chartrian community and Royal Portal designers, had access to the absolute most recent Latin translations of Arabic and Greek works of astronomy. As Peter Ellard says, “They were on the cutting edge of the natural sciences of their day, and this included the use of astrology [and astronomy] texts from Islamic sources which were only very recently made available (Ellard 2007).” Moreover, this hypothesis is also consistent with the Royal Portal depictions of the most recent astronomical technology, the astrolabe, which also had just recently arrived from the Andalusian Arabs.

An Ugly Fact? – Whether working in cultural history or in science, any damn fool can propose a hypothesis or theory to explain a puzzling phenomenon. It is the philosopher Sir Karl Popper who most often gets credit for formalizing, in the 1930s, the idea of falsifying hypotheses as the essential element of the scientific method. According to Popper no hypothesis can ever be proven, but one can be falsified, meaning that it can and should be scrutinized by decisive experiments, observations and tests. My favorite and I think the most eloquent phrasing of this idea is in Thomas Huxley’s presidential address to the British Association for the Advancement of Science for 1870. He hit the nail of the falsifiability principle squarely on the head, and much earlier than Popper, when he described the idea as, “the great tragedy of science – the slaying of a beautiful hypothesis by an ugly fact.”

How well does my hypothesis stand up to the rigors of falsifiability and testing? Well, to be intellectually honest and with great humility I must admit that there are strong opinions out there about the scarcity of primary sources from the late classical and medieval periods that show unequivocally that anybody ever used precession or Zodiacal Ages as a timekeeping method to delineate historical periods or to measure and quantify epochs of time. The ugly fact dangling like a guillotine blade above the neck of my hypothesis is that serious literature on the matter opposes my hypothesis. For instance, Nicholas Campion, a respected cultural historian and specialist in the history of astronomy and astrology, writes: “There is though, not a single extant example of the use of precession of the equinoxes to predict the future by astrologers until the late nineteenth century. There are indeed arguments that precession was used by astrologers in the ancient world, but they are based entirely on the retrospective interpretation of circumstantial evidence and lack any textual support. […] Literary evidence is not everything but, when it is entirely absent in the works of people who should have been most concerned with it, the fact does require some attention. Simply, there are no extant classical or medieval astrological texts which attribute any astrological or historical significance to precession. (Campion 2016, my emphasis).”

Accordingly, my hypothesis here would appear to be no better than any damn fool’s, unless there is a way to redeem it with solid historical or scientific evidence. I think the hypothesis is redeemable for two reasons. One is testability; the other is counter examples of Campion’s opinion.

Testability – One of the standard approaches to the scientific testing of hypotheses is to predict consequences that should be observable only if the hypothesis is correct. On this score, if my hypothesis is correct then further study of the sources for the curriculum of the Quadrivium at the Cathedral School of Chartres at the time of Thierry should find that knowledge of Al-Battani’s book De motu stellarum was a source preferred over Ptolemy in the matter of precession. On the contrary, if it is found that some other source was preferred, say Ptolemy or Origen, then that would falsify the hypothesis and justify it being rejected. The kind of evidence to look for would be a statement or comment of the kind made by Copernicus, cited below. Until this test can be performed, I turn my attention to counter examples to the opinion that “there are no extant classical or medieval texts which attribute any astrological or historical significance to precession.”

Calendar Reform and Precession – By 1582 when the Gregorian calendar was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII in the papal bull Inter gravissimas (Latin for: Among the Most Serious), the earlier Julian calendar had fallen 10 days out of step with the true dates of the equinoxes, due to precession. The discrepancy arose because precession makes the tropical year shorter than the sidereal year, we now know, by 20 minutes and 24.5 seconds. The tropical year, on average 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, 45 seconds, is the amount of time it takes to observe the Sun return to the same equinox position and this tracks the seasons. The sidereal year in mean solar time of 365 days, 6 hours, 9 minutes and 9.5 seconds, is the time it takes the earth to orbit the Sun exactly once, measured relative to the distant stars. In 2009 Ari Ben-Menahem, wrote in his Historical Encyclopedia of Natural and Mathematical Sciences that the growing calendar discrepancy, caused by precession, had been well-known since the early medieval period, specifically by Bede noting a three day error in the 8th century and Roger Bacon, c. 1200, a seven or eight day error. Moreover, Johannes Sacrobosco wrote in his book De Anni Ratione (Latin for: On Reckoning the Years), c. 1235, that the Julian calendar was out of step with the equinoxes by ten days and that some correction was needed. Even Dante Alighieri, writing c. 1300, was aware of the issue and the need for calendar reform. I’m not entirely sure how historians would make sense of historical periods without a reliably calibrated calendar of one kind or another. Considering the size of calendar discrepancies that can accumulate over centuries due to precession, I would say the issue, considered by the likes of Bede, Bacon, Sacrobosco and Alighieri, was indeed of rather substantial historical significance. Moreover, the issue of precession, when calendar reform finally came, was rather aptly named as “among the most serious”.

Copernicus and Precession – The Polish priest and astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus lived on the cusp between the Middle Ages and Modern times, often pegged at the year 1500. He was born in 1473 and died in 1543. In about 1530 he completed his book De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (Latin for: On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) that would not be published until 1543. This work shows not only his knowledge of Al-Battani but expresses a preference for Al-Battani’s rate of precession over Ptolemy’s: “Venus, although bigger than Mercury, can occult barely a hundredth of the sun. So says Al-Battani of Raqqa, who thinks that the sun’s diameter is ten times larger [than Venus’], and therefore so minute a speck is not easily descried in the most brilliant light […] I said, however, that the annual revolutions of the center and of inclination are nearly equal. For if they were exactly equal, the equinoctial and solstitial points as well as the entire obliquity of the ecliptic would have to show no shift at all with reference to the sphere of the fixed stars. But since there is a slight variation, it was discovered only as it grew larger with the passage of time. From Ptolemy to us the precession of the equinoxes amounts to almost 21°. (Copernicus, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium Book I, my emphasis).”

This passage is clear evidence of the use of precession – the displacement of the equinoxes by 21° – in relation to measuring a defined historical period, “from Ptolemy to us.” Al-Battani’s precession rate of 54.5 arc seconds per year for the 1,362 years between Copernicus’ book and the death of Ptolemy in 168 CE gives 20.62 degrees. Ptolemy’s much slower rate would give only 13.75 degrees. The preference of Copernicus is clear. Moreover, the above passage on precession comes at the beginning of the book where precession is introduced as part of the core evidence that helps prove the Earth revolves around the Sun. In fact Book III or fully one sixth of the entire work is devoted exclusively to a discussion of precession. Considering this is the book most often credited as terminating the medieval period by triggering the greatest scientific revolution in history, it is difficult to imagine a discussion of precession in a context of greater historical significance.

The Data in the Disarray – Considering the presence in the Royal Portal of at least two Zodiac Cycles and of six or seven astrolabes, I think there is enough data or information in the sculptures to trigger in the mind of an astronomically informed observer, the idea of instrument-aided observational astronomy as a legitimate and beneficial pursuit and as a matter of natural philosophy. This connects meaningfully with the sanctification of the Seven Liberal Arts depicted over the rightmost door. Moreover, I find it most meaningful that the data in the Zodiac sculptures are astronomically inaccurate and presented in messy chronological disarray: it connects perfectly with the theological idea of disruption in the Heavens. Disarray of the heavens in the context of the end of times and of the Second Coming is fully consistent with Biblical teaching. These teachings and centuries of commentary on the theology and eschatology of Adventus warn that disruption and disarray in the heavens will be signs of the Second Coming. A few New Testament quotes illustrate the point:

But in those days, following that distress, the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light; the stars will fall from the sky, and the heavenly bodies will be shaken.  At that time people will see the Son of Man coming in clouds with great power and glory. Mark 13: 24-26  

Immediately after the distress of those days the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light; the stars will fall from the sky, and the heavenly bodies will be shaken. Then will appear the sign of the Son of Man in heaven. And then all the peoples of the earth will mourn when they see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven, with power and great glory. Matthew 24:29-30

There will be signs in the sun, moon and stars. On the earth, nations will be in anguish and perplexity at the roaring and tossing of the sea. Luke 21:25

I will show wonders in the heavens above and signs on the earth below, blood and fire and billows of smoke. The sun will be turned to darkness and the moon to blood before the coming of the great and glorious day of the Lord. Acts 2:19-20

In addition, because the zodiacal information in the sculptures is in such disarray it also connects well with Scriptural emphasis on the idea that the timing of the Second Coming can be neither known nor predicted:

But concerning that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, nor the Son, but the Father only. Matt 24:36

Therefore you also must be ready, for the Son of Man is coming at an hour you do not expect. Matt 24:36

Be on guard, keep awake. For you do not know when the time will come. Mark 13:33

Now, brothers and sisters, about times and dates we do not need to write to you, for you know very well that the day of the Lord will come like a thief in the night. 1 Thessalonians 5

But the day of the Lord will come like a thief, and then the heavens will pass away with a roar, and the heavenly bodies will be burned up and dissolved, and the earth and the works that are done on it will be exposed. 2 Peter 3:10

In the language of modern media communications, the sculptures are ‘on message.’ They are consistent with and reinforce traditional Christian teaching associated with the end of time.

The Gemini Taurus Transposition – And lastly, why do I think Gemini and Taurus were deliberately transposed in the Zodiac Window? It is really quite simple. Once you replace Ptolemy’s rate of precession with Al-Battani’s, it makes sense for a Chartrian to sideline Taurus and emphasize Gemini because now he knows it as the age in which God created the universe.

Consider the May/Gemini pane in the Zodiac Window, shown in Figure 12 below. The monthly labor for May is supposed to be hunting. However, the knight has interrupted his hunt. He has dismounted and placed his lance at rest. Instead of stalking game, he gazes wide eyed and in rapt attention at a pole standing against a blue sky, planted vertically upon the horizon line. His horse has found something worth munching at the precise point where the pole intersects the horizon. The Gemini Twins both gesture with their hands in a downward direction toward their feet. Is it just my imagination or could the body language of the knight, the horse and the twins be a glazier’s way of directing an observer’s attention to something important lower, or rather, earlier in Gemini? Could the intersecting pole and horizon line in this image somehow represent an important intersection, say of the equator with the ecliptic, at the feet of Gemini? Considering the pole and horizon intersect at 90°, while the equator and ecliptic do so at 23.5°, would there be any value in tracing lines to connect various points in this image, just to see if any interesting 23.5° angles pop-out? Well, maybe. But that could just as easily be an exercise in projecting meaning rather than extracting it. Moreover, however much fun you can have with geometrical doodling to connect the dots, I really think there is a much more important historical connection to be made in all of this.

Figure 12

Figure 12 – May / Gemini in the Chartres Zodiac Window

The Mathesis Connection – My hypothesis of connecting the disorder and disconnectedness of the Royal Portal Zodiac to the astronomy of precession and to numerically measured time keeping is grounded on the keen interest of the Chartrians in the business of applying numbers – the teachings of the Quadrivium – to theology and to natural philosophy. We know how keen they were to do this from their written work. The concept of ‘numerizing’ or mathematicising knowledge is known today by the word mathesis, derived from the Greek μάθησεως. It is used primarily in discussions of the historical quest for a scientia mathematica universalis or a universal science grounded in mathematics. The historical outline of this quest usually starts with Pythagoras and Plato and their late classical followers. Generally ignoring the Middle Ages completely, it then jumps straight to the Italian renaissance with the work of Marsilio Ficino and Galileo, in a rush to get to Descartes, Leibniz and then to perhaps the greatest work of mathesis of all time, Newton’s Principia, the full title of which is Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Latin for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. Make no mistake: it is to the multi-generational journey of mathesis that we owe the debt of transforming what the Chartrians knew as Natural Philosophy into what we know today as Astronomy, Cosmology and Physics. And whoever overlooks the role of the Chartrians on that long and arduous journey through time, fails in connecting the dots.

Richard J Legault

26 May AD 2017 (Gregorian), Ottawa

Figure 13

Figure 13 – The Disconnected Zodiac of the Chartres Royal Portal c. 1145, in random order.

 

Richard J Legault is a freelance journalist who lives with his wife Lynn in Ottawa, Canada. Some of his astronomical work has appeared in the Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. Some of his unpublished work-in-progress on Chartres is posted on the Academia.edu web-site. Legault welcomes questions, comments and feedback at richardjlegault@gmail.com.

References:

Ball, Philip 2008 Universe of Stone–A Biography of Chartres Cathedral Harper Collins New York.

Ben-Menahem, Ari 2009 Historical Encyclopedia of Natural and Mathematical Sciences Springer, New York. Consulted 31 May 2017 at URL:

https://books.google.ca/books?redir_esc=y&id=9tUrarQYhKMC&q=precession#v=snippet&q=calendar&f=false

Bishop, Roy L. and Turner, David G 2016 “Astronomical Precession” in Observer’s Handbook 2017, James S. Edgar, Editor, Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Toronto 2016.

Burnett, Charles S. F.  1978 “Arabic into Latin in Twelfth-Century Spain: the Works of Hermann of Carinthia”, in Mittellateinisches Jahrbuch, 13, 1978, pp. 100–34. Consulted 26 April 2017 at URL:  http://www.mgh-bibliothek.de/dokumente/a/a053253.pdf

Campion, Nicholas 2016 Astrology and Popular Religion in the Modern West: Prophecy, Cosmology and the New Age Routledge, New York.

Copernicus Nicolaus 1530 De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium, manuscript digital copy consulted 25 May 2017 at URL: http://pka.bj.uj.edu.pl/bjmanus/revol/plist_e.html

Copernicus Nicolaus 1543 De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium, (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) translator Charles Glen Wallis, in Hawking 2002

Edgar, James 2016 Observer’s Handbook 2017, The Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Toronto, Ontario.

Ellard, Peter 2007 The Sacred Cosmos–Theological, Philosophical and Scientific Conversations in the Twelfth Century School of Chartres, University of Scranton Press, Chicago Illinois.

Fassler, Margot E. 2010 The Virgin of Chartres – Making History through Liturgy and the Arts Yale University Press, New Haven.

Hawking, Stephen 2002 On the Shoulders of GiantsThe Great Works of Physics and Astronomy Running Press Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Hermann of Carinthia 1143 Preface of The Planisphere of Claudius Ptolemy in Burnet 1978.

Huxley, T. Henry 1873 Critiques and Addresses MacMillan and Co., London

James, John 2009: In Search of the Unknown in Medieval Architecture Pindar Press, New York.

Katzenellenbogen, Adolf 1964 The Sculptural Programs of Chartres Cathedral W. W. Norton & Co, New York.

Knitter, Brian John 2000 “Thierry of Chartres and the West Façade Sculpture of Chartres Cathedral” San Jose State University Master’s Theses, Paper 2052.

Legault, Richard J 2015a Chartres – Adventus, draft monograph posted at URL: https://www.academia.edu/11801856/Chartres_-_Adventus

Legault, Richard J and Powell, Martin J. 2015b Chartres – The Guardians of Time draft paper posted at URL: https://www.academia.edu/19747483/Chartres_The_Guardians_of_Time

Legault, Richard J 2017a A Close Encounter of the Medieval Kind draft monograph posted at URL: https://www.academia.edu/30679872/A_Close_Encounter_of_the_Medieval_Kind

Legault, Richard J 2017b Chartres Royal Portal – Ascension or Creation? draft monograph posted at URL: https://www.academia.edu/32400373/Chartres_Royal_Portal_Ascension_or_Creation

Lewis, George 1911 The Philocalia of Origen – A Compilation of Selected Passages from Origen’s Works made by Gregory of Nazianzus and Basil of Caesarea Charles Scribner’s and Sons, New York. Digital copy consulted 25 May 2017 at URL: http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/origen_philocalia_01_intro.htm

Livio, Mario 2013 Brilliant Blunders From Darwin to Einstein Simon and Schuster New York.

Mâle, Emile 1958 The Gothic Image: Religious Art in France of the 13th Century, translated by Dora Nussey, Harper & Row, New York.

Mâle, Emile 1983 Chartres Harper and Row, New York.

Minio-Paluello “Plato of TivoliComplete Dictionary of Scientific Biography 2008. Encyclopedia.com, retrieved 29 Oct. 2013 http://www.encyclopedia.com.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aerospace Dictionary, web site consulted 10 May 2017 at URL: http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/hqlibrary/aerospacedictionary/aerodictall/g.html

O’Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., 1999 “Muhammad ibn Jābir al-Harrānī al-Battānī”, in MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews, retrieved 29 October 2013 from: http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Al-Battani.html

Origen c. 250 Philocalia in Lewis 1911.

Plato, Timaeus, cited in Ellard 2007.

Thierry de Chartres et al. La Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres (Our Lady of Chartres Cathedral), lithoscript monument, Cathedral School of Chartres, Chartres, in phases from circa 1145 to circa 1219.

Van Der Meulen, Jan and Nancy Waterman 1981 The West Portals of Chartres Cathedral: The Iconology of the Creation University Press of America.

Meaning in the Monstrous: Gargoyles, Grotesques, and Other Curiosities

When I volunteered years ago as a greeter at the Washington National Cathedral’s gate house, visitors would sometimes ask, “Why are gargoyles on cathedrals?” The National Cathedral is known for its gargoyles. The architects who conceived the neo-Gothic structure in the early 20th century saw fit to incorporate gargoyles and grotesques in the building’s design just as cathedral builders did in thirteenth century Europe.  160 sculpted gargoyles jut from the National Cathedral’s walls, towers, and buttresses. Some amuse (photo 1), others delight, and more than a few are nightmarish.

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1. Master Carver Gargoyle, a tribute to master stone mason Roger Morigi, Washington National Cathedral, Washington, DC

Inevitably, discussions about the presence of gargoyles on cathedrals came to a point. The inquirer perceived a glaring inconsistency in the juxtaposition of snarling dragons on a cathedral’s exterior with the benevolent images of apostles and saints within the cathedral.  I admit that it’s not easy to square, for example, the bizarre image of an eagle (or hawk?) with human breasts and horse hooves outside Barcelona cathedral (photo 2) with the Christian symbolism that marks the building’s interior. Often people who asked the question about gargoyles also assumed that the creatures hold some hidden meaning. It’s a reasonable assumption. There’s no doubt that most cathedrals burst at the seams with meaning and ambiguity: a set of keys symbolizes St. Peter or the papacy, a rainbow may signify divine favor, Noah, or the Apocalyptic Christ, and the color blue is associated with the Virgin Mary and the heights of heaven. Significance and double meanings abound. And yet, what could a screeching bird of prey with dangling breasts possibly mean, other than that the artist had a wild imagination?

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2. Anthropomorphic Gargoyle, Cathedral of the Holy Cross & Saint Eulalia, Barcelona, Spain

I’ll do my best to answer that question below. But first, I want to admit that my pat answer to the question about why gargoyles appear on cathedrals went something like this: “Many say that gargoyles are there to ward off evil spirits.” It sounds plausible, given that some gargoyles are hideous enough to scare the pants off Freddy Krueger. But my answer begged a key question: When does something that looks like a demon dispel a demon or, in more philosophical terms, how does evil vanquish evil? I’m not sure that it does. So, I’ve wondered all along if there’s more to the story about gargoyles, and now I think there is. In this post, following some background information on gargoyles, grotesques and misericords, we’ll consider one theory about their meaning in the sculpture and wood carving of cathedrals and a few other buildings in France, Spain, Canada, and the United States.

Key Terms and Background    The question about a gargoyle’s meaning differs from one about its purpose. The purpose of gargoyles is to shunt water away from the walls of a building to prevent erosion and discoloration of the stone. They function as elaborate drain pipes. Medieval builders used gargoyles to drain the roofs of churches, residences, and government buildings (photo 3).

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3. Dragon Gargoyles on the Palais de Justice, Rouen, Normandy, France

The English word gargoyle derives from the Latin word garga, meaning throat. It’s the root for “gargle” too. The Germans are more descriptive. They call gargoyles wasserspeirs, or “water spitters.” Depending on the rainfall’s intensity, they spit or disgorge water through their mouths. Medieval stone masons would cut a trough on the topside of the gargoyle to channel water away from the building and through the gargoyle’s mouth to the ground below. A 13th century gargoyle in the form of a dachshund at Chartres Cathedral illustrates the concept (photo 4). These days, masons typically insert metal conduit in a gargoyle to carry water through the sculpture. The conduit pipe is evident in the mouth of “Sir Ram,” a 21st century gargoyle at Gloucester Cathedral (photo 5).

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4. Dachshund Gargoyle (ca. 1300), Chartres Cathedral, France

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5. Sir Ram Gargoyle by Pascal Mychalysin, Cathedral of St. Peter and the Holy Trinity, Gloucester, England, UK

It’s important to mention here that the words gargoyle and grotesque are not synonymous. According to Janetta Rebold Benton in her informative book, Holy Terrors: Gargoyles on Medieval Buildings, “The term gargoyle has come to be applied, inaccurately, to other sculptures on the exteriors of medieval buildings that are similar to gargoyles in their grotesque anatomy but do not function as waterspouts.” This means that we can think of gargoyles as a subset of grotesques, which may themselves be decorative, functional, or both.  And to complicate things a bit, not all grotesques are ugly. Ms. Benton notes that “grotesque” comes from the French word grotte, meaning grotto or cave. It referred originally to the imaginative paintings of people, animals, and flowers found in caves beneath some Roman dwellings.  The so-called Bayeux Lovers, a famous twelfth century stone carving at Bayeux Cathedral, provide an example of a rather charming grotesque (photo 6).

BAY-Lovers

6. The Bayeux Lovers, Notre Dame Cathedral, Bayeux, France

In addition to sculpted grotesques, one sometimes sees strange or fanciful figures in the wood carvings that adorn the misericords in the choir stalls of some medieval cathedrals. Misericords, defined as “a narrow ledge on the underside of a hinged seat, designed to support a person standing at rest against the turned up seat,” enabled weary monks to rest their bottoms as they stood for long hours during the Mass. The subject matter for misericords runs the gamut from solemn and serious to absurd and hilarious. I invite you to envision a monk’s behind in close proximity to the roosters who are peering up at the buttocks of two indistinguishable creatures (who might as well be monks) and try not to smile. Pere C’Anglada, the artist commissioned in 1394 to design Barcelona Cathedral’s choir stalls, clearly had a ribald sense of humor (photo 7)!

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7. Rooster Misericord, Cathedral of the Holy Cross & St. Eulalia, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain

Studies and Speculation   Those who have studied gargoyles in the context of cathedrals and churches have advanced more than a few ideas about what these monsters in stone might mean. Janetta Benton lists nearly a dozen interpretations in her book; gargoyles as warnings to sinners, guardians of the church, symbols of temptations, attention grabbers, and more. She observes that given their great variety, “it is extremely unlikely that there is one meaning for all gargoyles.” I agree. Nonetheless, one theory about their meaning intrigues me more than all the others: that gargoyles and grotesques in general may be “survivals of pagan beliefs the church permitted to persist beside Christian subjects….”

Ronald Sheridan and Anne Ross agree with that hypothesis and, in their book Gargoyles and Grotesques: Paganism in the Medieval Church, assert that, “The Church in medieval times had come to be the storehouse of the sub-conscious of the people–the lumber room as it were, in which were bygone, ancient, half-forgotten and half-formulated beliefs and superstitions, customs, and folklore. The authorities would seem to have been remarkably tolerant of these, and by countenancing such bric-a-brac the Church has effectively preserved to an astonishing degree a great deal of our ancient past.”

So, whose ancient past did the Church preserve?

Meet the Celts  I think it’s safe to say that most people in the United States and perhaps elsewhere associate Celt and Celtic with Ireland.  To be sure, people in Ireland are Celts and some speak Gaelic, a Celtic language. But they’re not the only ones with Celtic roots. Three centuries before Christ, Celtic tribes inhabited much of Europe north of the Alps. The Greeks called them keltoi. The Romans called them Galli, the Latin root for the English words Gaul and Gallic. Nations are named for the Celts; Belgium for the Belgae and Great Britain for the Britanni. Celtic tribes lived in northern Spain where the Galicia region still bears their name. France’s famous capital city is named for the Parisii, a tribe that joined an uprising against Julius Caesar and his Roman legions after they invaded and occupied Gaul around 50 BCE. Before the Roman conquest of the Mediterranean world and Western Europe, the so-called free Celts extended from Ireland in the west to the Balkans in the east. One tribe moved even further east to what is now Turkey. Saint Paul wrote to the Christians among them in his epistle to the Galatians.

PED-Celt

8. Celtic Head Corbel (13th or 14th c.) on House Moved from Girona to Pedralbes Monastery, Barcelona, Spain

The Romans dreaded the Celts. They were fearsome warriors who wore mustaches (photo 8), painted their bodies before battle, fought naked, and decapitated their fallen enemies. They hung the severed heads on their horses and, in some cases, displayed them in their homes as trophies. Women fought alongside men, a practice that possibly inspired a late 14th century misericord at Barcelona’s cathedral that shows two (fully clothed) maidens raising shields against sword wielding combatants who stand on the legs of strutting birds (photo 9, below). These and other customs led one historian to describe the Celts as “a Roman nightmare.” Consequently, Rome warred against various Celtic tribes for more than three hundred years before and after Christ. Roman legions drove the Celts out of northern Italy around 200 BCE in a brutal conflict that had genocidal aspects. They finally subdued Celtic resistance in continental Europe and much of Britain by the end of the first century CE. Over time, dozens of Celtic tribes were integrated into the Roman Empire. Celtic gods eventually merged with their Roman counterparts.

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9. Misericord with Women in Combat, Cathedral of the Holy Cross & St. Eulalia, Barcelona, Spain

Centuries later, long after the Christianization of Western Europe, vestiges of the pagan beliefs to which Janetta Benton referred appeared in stone and wood images in countless cathedrals, abbey churches, and cloisters in France, England, and Spain. It’s significant that many of Europe’s most famous medieval cathedral towns began as Celtic settlements. Canterbury began with the Cantiaci, and Chartres was originally Carnutum, “City of the Carnutes” (photo 10). The “lumber room” full of half-forgotten superstitions, customs, and beliefs in these towns and others was stuffed by the Celts.

Chartres

10. View to North of Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France

Celtic Deities  As we’ve seen, there is a lot of wood—most of it finely carved oak—in the lumber room that Sheridan and Ross so aptly named. But the medieval storehouse of the subconscious also holds a quarry full of limestone bearing the images of Celtic gods and goddesses.  Dr. Miranda Aldhouse Green, an eminent authority on Celtic religion, wrote in her Dictionary of Celtic Myth and Legend that the names of more than 400 Celtic gods and goddesses are known, the majority of them being local deities. Let’s meet one whose cult was widespread and whose popularity continues.

Cernunnos was the lord of the animals, fertility, abundance, and regeneration. His name means horned or peaked one. He appears in art well before the Roman conquest and variously wears antlers and bull or ram horns.  In one of the earliest images of Cernunnos inscribed on a silver cauldron that dates to the 3rd or 4th century BCE, the god holds a snake with a ram’s head. The snake likely symbolizes regeneration and the ram, virility and fecundity. Sheridan and Ross note that he often represented the devil or the demonic in Christian contexts. With his emblematic horns and portrayed with a sinister or threatening affect, it’s easy to mistake Cernunnos for the Christians’  “prince of darkness.”

MSM-Horned Face1

11. Cernunnos Capital, Mont St. Michel Abbey, France

Sculpted Cernunnos figures are reportedly common in Europe, and they’re not uncommon in North America. In a capital atop a column, probably dating to the 12th century, at Mont St. Michel Abbey the god appears to be placid or staring blankly into space (photo 11, above). About 300 years later, Cernunnos showed up in a much more  elaborate setting. Wearing a crown, his horned visage is easily missed in the complex gilded carving that borders the canopy in the choir stalls at Barcelona’s cathedral.  Foliage, most likely symbolizing the god’s association with regeneration, spreads evocatively from his groin (photo 12).

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12. Cernunnos, Choir Stall Carving, Cathedral of the Holy Cross & St. Eulalia, Barcelona, Spain

Two 20th century sculptures in North America give some sense of Cernunnos’ resilience as a motif in Christian art. With ram’s horns, wings, and a snake in his hands, Cernunnos seems to represent Satan, the fallen angel, in the multifaceted iconography of the Wisdom portal at Riverside Church in New York City (photo 13). He seems friendlier as a grotesque greeter near the main doorways to Christ Church Cathedral in Montreal (photo 14).

RIV-Cernunnos Snip

13. Cernunnos, Wisdom Portal, Riverside Church, New York City

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14. Cernunnos Grotesque, Christ Church Cathedral, Montreal, Canada

Celtic Beliefs and Customs   Explaining the basis for Celtic religion, Professor Aldhouse Green notes that the Celts believed that everything in the natural world contained its own spirit. Thus, the Celts saw divinity in every tree, spring, stream and mountain. Gods were everywhere. The oak was sacred, wells were holy, and human heads were revered as the seat of the soul, the locus of power and spirit.  This likely explains the head-hunting practice that horrified the Romans. It may also explain why the Celts’ used stylized heads to decorate everything from wine flagons to shrines, and how “severed heads” came to be a common decorative motif in medieval cathedrals (photo 15) as well as a sculptural convention that continued into modern times (photo 16).

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15. Severed Heads (14th century), Cathedral of the Holy Cross & St. Eulalia, Barcelona, Spain

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16. Lady’s Head (1909), University Club, Chicago, USA

Of the domesticated animals, dogs seem to have captured the Celts’ imagination more than others. Dogs variously represented hunting, healing and death. As companions and guardians of the hunter, they sometimes appear in Celtic religious art as symbolic protectors of a god or goddess. Two dogs, who hold what look like battle-axes, stand guard beside an unidentified deity (possibly Silvanus, the hammer god) in a misericord at Barcelona Cathedral (photo 17).

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17. Canine Guardians Misericord, Cathedral of the Holy Cross & St. Eulalia, Barcelona, Spain

The Celts also held a curious belief that dog saliva has healing properties. Evidently, the chance to use the dog as another symbol for the spiritual healing offered by the Church was too good for Christian iconographers to pass up. Gargoyles and grotesques in the likeness of dogs or dog-like creatures bark from the walls of cathedrals on both sides of the Atlantic (photo 4, above, and photos 18 & 19).

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18. Dog Gargoyle, Cathedral of the Holy Cross & Saint Eulalia, Barcelona, Spain

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19. Dog-like Grotesque, Christ Church Cathedral, Montreal, Canada

I’ll conclude this post with some thoughts about the hybrid gargoyle (photo 2) whose weird features I highlighted above. It might come as no surprise that one of my favorite movies is Camelot. The 1960’s musical based on King Arthur’s legend and starring Richard Harris and Vanessa Redgrave resonated with me. I bought the soundtrack album and played it over and over again until I learned the songs by heart. The lyrics for one of them came to mind as I wrote this post. They’re a latter day tribute to the Celtic belief in metamorphosis, or shape shifting.  At one point in the musical Arthur chides Merlin, his boyhood teacher, about an omission in young Arthur’s education. Perplexed by his wife, Guinevere, Arthur complains, “And what of turning me to animal and bird, from beaver to the smallest bobolink?  I should have had a whirl at changing to a girl to learn the way creatures think!” King Arthur, we’re led to believe, learned how to see the big picture by looking through the eyes of a bird (photo 20).

Celtic myth, says Professor Aldhouse Green, “is redolent with animals who were once in human form, and of divinities who could transform themselves back and forth between human and animal shape.” The Celtic sense that the spiritual and physical are inseparable and that the boundaries between humans and animals are malleable, inspired medieval sculptors to fashion the strange creature with human, avian, and animal features. It may symbolize the god-like qualities of a horse’s speed and strength, a mother’s power to give birth and nurture, and an eagle’s ability to soar with the spirit of the wind. This brings me to a final thought: What would a cathedral be as a symbol of an all-encompassing City of God without a storeroom where we can sift through the artifacts that lie beneath the city’s surface?

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20. Humanoid Owl with a Book (1925), Tribune Tower, Chicago, USA

Article and Photos Copyright 2017 by Michael Klug, mikejklug@aol.com, July 3, 2017    

St. Joan of Arc

In the fall of 2010 when I was between jobs, I went to France on a self-styled pilgrimage to visit some of its Gothic cathedrals. Knowing of my desire to learn more about the history and iconography of the famous cathedral at Chartres, my wife, Mercedes, encouraged me to go despite my precarious employment status. Her argument went something like this: “If not now, when you have more time than money, then when?”  It didn’t take much convincing.

St. Ouen Abbey Church

1. St. Ouen Abbey Church, Rouen, France

Using money left over after refinancing our home for an improvement project, I happily set out for a two week sojourn in northern France with stops in Paris, Rouen, Amiens, Chartres, and Reims. I visited abbey churches (photo 1, above), cathedrals, and museums. I walked a lot, rode trains, and ate simple meals (fresh baguettes made every sandwich seem extraordinary). I enjoyed the slower pace and quiet, reflective, moments that enabled me to ponder a range of possible answers to a question that anyone who’s entering his 57th year, when it seems that time is running out, would be well-advised to ask: What’s waiting in the wings?

One of my answers to that question led indirectly to this blog. When I thought about what I’d like to do with the time that remains, I wrote in my journal that I’d like to be “Malcolm Miller’s protégé.” Malcolm Miller has been the resident English-speaking guide at Chartres Cathedral for decades. He knows the cathedral—its history, art, and meaning—like the back of his hand. He’s also very good at communicating it. I first saw Miller in action in 1991, and thought at the time that he has the ideal job; one that would get me out of bed every morning. I wanted to do what he does. So, with all this in mind, I decided to spend six days at Chartres just to hear Malcolm Miller talk about its wondrous cathedral (photo 2).

Malcolm Miller So Porch 2010

2. Malcolm Miller leading a tour in 2010, South Porch, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France

But on my fourth day in France, before I got to Chartres, something else caught my eye. I learned at a small museum in Rouen, 80 miles northwest of Paris, that Mark Twain was a big fan of St. Joan of Arc (Sainte Jeanne d’Arc in French).  The Joan of Arc Museum displayed a letter where Twain wrote that Joan was the “world’s supremest heroine.” It also had an early edition of the author’s last novel, Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc, a fictional account of her life written from the perspective of a lifelong friend. Twain published it in 1896 when he was 61 years old. What’s more, I learned that he spent the better part of a decade researching background information for the book. I’d never heard of it, nor did I know that Twain considered it his finest literary achievement.

In retrospect, I now see that my brush with Mark Twain and Joan of Arc marked the start of a course correction. Did I really want to be Malcolm Miller’s protégé? I learned during my trip that protégé literally means “protected one.” I sensed that I didn’t need protection beneath an older man’s wings as much as I needed inspiration to lift my own, and for that I had cathedrals and churches all around me including a historic chapel dedicated to Joan of Arc in my hometown (photo 3).

MKE-Joan of Arc Chapel

3. Joan of Arc Chapel, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI

Twain’s deep interest in Joan of Arc’s story helped to broaden my view, and incidentally validated my desire to delve into the stories and symbols one finds in sacred structures everywhere, and follow them where they lead deep into the rich soil of the spirit where the seeds of timeless ideals and enduring principles like love, courage, and self-sacrifice mysteriously start to grow. So, on the 586th anniversary of her death, I am happy to post this article as a tribute to Joan of Arc whose extraordinary life inspired a novel, films (love that Ingrid Bergman!), countless works of art, and my decision to stay put and write about what I’ve been so fortunate to see on my travels. As we revisit Joan’s story, I’ll illustrate it with photos I’ve taken in France, Quebec, and the United States.

Voices of Saints   Joan of Arc was born in the Champagne region of France in 1412 at roughly the three quarters mark of a drawn out conflict that historians would later call the Hundred Years War. The war stemmed from a dispute about who was the legitimate ruler of the Kingdom of France. Intermarriage among the royal families of England and France had led to competing claims over the French crown. When Joan was seven years old, the English and their Burgundian allies had the upper hand, occupying entire regions of France and major cities such as Rouen, Caen (photo 4), Reims and Paris.

Abbey Towers

4. Abbey of St. Etienne (Abbaye aux Hommes), Caen, France

It was a rough time for France. People had lost hope. One writer notes that many residents of Domremy, Joan’s village, were forced to leave their homes as the war threatened them.  The French peasantry suffered under English rule, perhaps none more than the small farmers whose crops and livestock were appropriated without compensation to feed the occupiers. Joan’s father was a tenant farmer, and her mother was a devout Catholic who, it is said, conveyed her deep love of the Church to her daughter. Artists sometimes portray Joan as a pious French farm girl, as in a window at the Cathedral of Notre Dame of Quebec (photo 5).

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5. Joan of Arc Window, Cathedral-Basilica of Notre Dame of Quebec, Quebec City, Canada

When she was 13 years old, Joan began to hear saints’ voices. She believed that Michael the archangel (photo 6), Catherine of Alexandria, and Margaret of Antioch wanted her to embark on a divine mission to deliver France from its English enemies and install Crown Prince Charles (i.e., the Dauphin), son of the deceased Valois King Charles VI, as the King of France. Consecrating herself to the cause, Joan took a vow of chastity and later refused an arranged marriage. In January 1429, without a formal education or military training, 17 year old Joan presented herself to the Dauphin and convinced him to place an army under her command to relieve the besieged city of Orleans.

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6. St. Michael the Archangel, Mont St. Michel Abbey, France

Before the army set out, someone asked about Joan’s sword. Where was it? She didn’t have one, yet. She replied that a sword would be found in a church a few miles from Charles’ encampment at Chinon, and so it was. The sword would later become Saint Joan’s acknowledged attribute, as we see in statuary commemorating her and other martyrs on the North Portal at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York (photo 7).

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7. St. Joan of Arc (3rd from Left); John Angel, Sculptor; St. John the Divine Episcopal Cathedral, New York, NY

The Maid of Orleans   Joan and her army arrived at Orleans on April 29, 1429. On May 4, she led a successful assault on one of the English forts. Joan led another attack on May 7 and was wounded. She persisted in battle and urged the French troops forward. By May 8, the English had abandoned the siege and were in retreat.  The lower panels in the Joan of Arc window at the Washington National Cathedral show Joan on her horse leading the French infantry in a charge against the English (photos 8 & 9, click to enlarge).

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8. Joan of Arc Window, Burnham Studios, 1941,Washington National Cathedral, Washington, DC

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9. Joan of Arc on Horseback, Joan of Arc Window, Washington National Cathedral

After breaking the siege at Orleans, Joan urged the Dauphin to proceed quickly to Reims where, for centuries, French kings were crowned in its cathedral (photo 10, below). Joan, who reportedly had uncommon common sense, understood the symbolic value of a traditional coronation ceremony for French morale. Charles hesitated at first, but after the French defeated an English army at Patay on June 18—as Joan promised they would—the Dauphin set out for Reims with Joan at his side. The coronation of Charles VII took place in Reims Cathedral on July 17, 1429. Joan was present at the ceremony and afterwards knelt before Charles to pronounce him her king, as depicted in the pedestal beneath the Joan of Arc statue at St. John the Divine (photo 11).

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10. Sculpture with Reims Cathedral Facade, Fleurs de Lis, and Crown Symbolizing Charles VII’s Coronation; Washington National Cathedral, Washington, DC

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11. Pedestal with Joan of Arc Kneeling as Charles VII is Crowned King of France; John Angel, Sculptor; St. John the Divine Episcopal Cathedral, New York, NY

In the ensuing months, several towns north of Paris turned from the English side to the French. In early September, the French forces with Joan in the lead made an unsuccessful attempt to take Paris. She was wounded again and retired to the Abbey Church at St. Denis where she paid homage to one of France’s patron saints (photos 12 & 13). By this time Joan’s compatriots had begun to idolize her and Charles may have been wary of her growing power. Nevertheless, after the army disbanded in December for the winter, King Charles VII decreed that Joan and her family would become members of the nobility.

St. Denis Nave

12. Nave and Apse, Abbey Church of St. Denis, Suburban Paris, France

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12. Joan of Arc Memorial, Abbey Church of St. Denis, Suburban Paris, France

Heretic, Hero, Saint   In spring 1430, the Burgundians captured Joan at Compiegne.  The Oxford Dictionary of Saints summarizes what happened next:  “The duke of Burgundy imprisoned her; Charles made no attempt to save her; the Burgundians sold her to the English, who attributed her success to witchcraft and spells.  She was imprisoned at Rouen and tried for heresy by the court of the bishop of Beauvais (a French cleric aligned with the English) who carefully chose her judges. She was examined repeatedly, but made a spirited and shrewd defense, single handed.”

La Tour Jeanne d'Arc

13. Joan of Arc’s Tower, Remnant of Bouvreuil Castle, Rouen, France

Joan spent a year in captivity, most of it under close guard in a drafty tower in Bouvreuil castle in Rouen (photo 13, above).  During her trial, the judges pressed her on the question of her submission to church authority, given that she claimed to communicate with saints directly. She did her best to avoid the trap, maintaining that she held herself answerable to God and the saints. She responded, “I am relying on our Lord, I hold to what I have already said.” When the judges threatened to torture her into submission, she declared that she would reply no differently even under threat of torture.  On May 23, 1491, the court convicted her of heresy and handed her over to the secular authorities for punishment. A week later, English executioners burned her to death in Rouen’s market square (photo 14). The record of Joan’s trial was a primary source for Mark Twain and his book.

Rouen Quoin

14. Street Scene near the Market Square where Joan of Arc was Burned; Rouen, France

In 1450, when King Charles VII entered Rouen after his army drove out the English forces, he ordered an inquiry into Joan’s trial. After a thorough investigation by a papal legate, the Pope revoked the findings of heresy against Joan. The French faithful were free to regard her as a national heroine and centuries later, in May 1920, Pope Benedict XV canonized her as a martyred saint.

Voices of Saints, Revisited   Did three saints really speak to Joan?  It seems to be the source of some controversy among skeptical theologians and psychologists. Let’s take a look at some evidence. It’s obvious that the voices Joan heard inspired her to take extraordinary risks and accomplish unprecedented feats for the love of God, king, and country. It’s also clear that many of her compatriots never doubted that she was a divine messenger, sent to restore their faith in themselves. A prophecy had been gaining traction among the French populace at the time of Joan’s birth, that a young virgin would deliver the country from its English oppressors. Joan, who vowed perpetual chastity at an early age, was thought to be that deliverer. Those who knew and fought beside her took heart in her example and encouragement, and they carried on bravely after she died. They sensed something transcendent about her.

But along with what we can see of her impact on others, I think it’s important to consider what the three saints might have meant to young Joan. To put it another way, what did they symbolize? It’s a key question because symbolism, says theologian Huston Smith, is the “technical language” of religion; of human correspondence with the divine.

When we look closely at the traditions involving Saints Michael, Catherine, and Margaret, we find some interesting connections between their stories and Joan. She embodied qualities associated with each of them. The Bible’s Book of Revelation describes St. Michael as the principal fighter against the forces of evil who was thought by the Church to lead the armies of God. He’s the patron saint of the military and is often depicted, as in photo 6 above, as a powerful warrior. Joan too, was a warrior and leader.

St. Catherine of Alexandria declared herself to be a “bride of Christ” and is one of the early church’s virgin saints. Legend has it that she turned down the emperor’s marriage proposal. He didn’t take kindly to being spurned so Roman authorities tortured her on a spiked wheel, ever after called a “Catherine wheel.” She survived the torture and was martyred by beheading, signified by the palm branch and red blade in a window at Albany’s Roman Catholic cathedral (photo 15, below). Joan too, refused marriage.

ALB-Catherine

15. St. Catherine Window; Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, Albany, NY

St. Margaret of Antioch also was a beautiful virgin who, according to legend, for the love of Christ refused a Roman official’s marriage proposal. As punishment, he had her put on the rack, beat with rods, and had her flesh raked with iron combs. She survived these horrible tortures and was thrown into her cell where a monstrous dragon suddenly appeared and began to swallow her whole. Margaret made the sign of the cross and the dragon disintegrated. The dragon lies at Margaret’s feet, likely symbolizing the evil of her oppressor, in a 19th century stained glass window at the cathedral in Albany, NY (photo 16). Joan too, withstood oppression.

ALB-Margaret of Antioch

16. St. Margaret Window; Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception; Albany, NY

A fascinating window at St. Roch’s church in Quebec City pulls it all together through the symbolic use of flowers (photo 17). It depicts Joan with her emblematic sword standing  in a garden with a cathedral in the background. Flowers associated with three saintly virtues appear in the composition. The lilies stand for innocence and purity; roses symbolize self-sacrifice; and irises, sometimes called sword lilies, signify divine messengers. The fleurs de lis on her skirt signify devotion to France. I’m inclined to think that Mark Twain, who wrote that Joan “was unfailingly true in an age that was false to the core,” would have liked the window as much as I do.

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17. Ste. Jeanne d’Arc Window; St. Roch Church, Quebec City, Canada

Copyright 2017 by Michael Klug, mikejklug@aol.com, May 30, 2017